# 学术英语

# 同义词替换

denotes -> represents, show, mean, indicate

can be formulated as -> is obtained as

shows -> illustrates, represents

deal with -> approach

proposed -> suggested

good -> positive, favorable, rosy, promising, perfect, pleasurable, excellent, outstanding, superior

bad -> dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse, ill

think -> harbor the idea that, take the attitude that, hold the view that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that

thing -> affair, business, matter

common -> shared

get many benefits -> reap huge fruits

in my opinion -> for my part ,from my own perspective

more and more -> Increasing(ly), growing

helpful -> beneficial, rewarding

very -> overwhelmingly, exceedingly, extremely, intensely

unnecessary, avoidable -> hardly necessary, hardly inevitable

necessary -> indispensable

attract one’s attention -> capture one’s attention

aspet -> facet, demension, sphere

always -> invariably

show -> demonstrate / manifest

so -> consequently, accordingly

in addition -> moreover

to solve this problem -> to address this issue

however -> In spite of that, Nevertheless, Despite this, On the other hand, In contrast

XX is defined as follows: -> XX is obtained as follows:, XX expressed is given as:, XX can be formulated as:, is expressed as:

The patches are mapped to the Transformer latent space of dimension $D$ via a trainable linear projection W.

# Introduction

#### 总体介绍

Research on __ has a long tradition

关于__的研究有着悠久的传统。

For decades, one of the most popular ideas in __ research is the idea that __

几十年来，__ 研究中最流行的观点之一是 __。

Recent theoretical developments have revealed that __

最近的理论发展表明__。

A common strategy used to study __ is to __

研究__的常用策略是__。

This research constitutes a relatively new area which has emerged from __

这项研究是由__产生的一个相对较新的领域。

These approaches have been influential in the field because of __

由于__，这些方法在该领域产生了影响。

In the past several decades, __ have played an important role in __

在过去的几十年里，__在__中起了重要的作用。

There are growing appeals for __

有越来越多的人呼吁__。

This is the field of study that deals with __

这是研究__的领域。

Most of the theories of __ are however focused on explaining __

然而，大多数关于__的理论集中于解释__。

There are three major theoretical and conceptual frameworks for __ __

有三个主要的理论和概念框架用于__。

The field has gradually broadened as __

这一领域逐渐扩大为__。

This field of study is sometimes referred as __

这个研究领域有时被称为__。

This has been widely adopted in the field of __

这已被广泛采用于__领域。

This thesis considers the field of __ as the main subject of its study.

本文以__领域为主要研究对象。

One of the major topics to be investigated in this field is __

这一领域的主要研究课题之一是__。

This field closely follows the paradigm of __

这个领域紧跟__的模式。

The field has met with great success in many problems __

这个领域在许多__问题上取得了巨大的成功。

This is not particularly new and has been used for many years in the field of __

这并不是特别新，在__领域已经使用多年。

This field closely follows the paradigm of __

这个领域紧跟__的模式。

Widely considered to be a good way to __

人们普遍认为这是一个好办法。

This has been widely adopted in the field of __

这已被广泛应用于__领域。

This phenomenon has been widely observed.

这一现象已被广泛观察到。

A common technique is to __

一种常用的技术是__。

This is a technique common in __

这是__常用的一种技术。

There are several common kinds of __

有几种常见的__。

#### 问题定义

This seems to be a common problem in __

这似乎是__的一个普遍问题。

This leads to myriad problems in __

这导致了__的无数问题。

The main problem is that __

主要的问题是__。

There is a further problem with __

关于__还有一个更深层次的问题。

One primary problem with __ is that __

关于__的一个主要问题是__。

The methods are not without their problems as will be discussed in __

这些方法并非没有问题，我们将在__中讨论这些问题。

The foremost problems are the facts that __

最重要的问题是__。

This makes up for the problem of __

这就解决了__的问题。

This seems to be a common problem in __

这似乎是__的一个普遍问题。

This is a complex problem and to simplify it requires __

这是一个复杂的问题，简化它需要__。

A challenging problem which arises in this domain is __

在这一领域出现的一个具有挑战性的问题是__。

These problems are difficult to handle __

这些问题很难处理__。

This is typically a complex problem __

这通常是一个复杂的问题__。

A well-known problem with __ is that it does not take into account the __

关于__一个众所周知的问题是它没有考虑到__。

One of the problems is that it considers only the __

问题之一是它只考虑了__。

The key problem with this technique is __

这项技术的关键问题是__。

It is usually an ill-posed problem in the case of __

在__情况下，这通常是一个不适定的问题。

This problem is well-posed and does not require to impose __

这个问题是恰当的，不需要强制执行__。

This appears as a more straightforward problem compared to the __

与__相比，这似乎是一个更简单的问题。

This turns out to be even more problematic because __

这就更有问题了，因为__。

The problem with such an implementation is that __

这种实现的问题是__。

This poses some problems when carrying out the __

这在执行__时提出了一些问题。

This problem has attracted more attention in the field of __

这个问题在__领域引起了广泛关注。

This is a basic chicken-and-egg problem because __

这是一个鸡生蛋还是蛋生鸡的基本问题，因为__。

Unfortunately, this approach results in problems related to __

不幸的是，这种方法导致了与__有关的问题。

These constraints make the problem difficult to __

这些限制使问题难以解决__。

Most of the research in this field is aimed at solving this problem.

这个领域的大多数研究都是为了解决这个问题。

This remains an open problem in the area.

这在该地区仍然是一个悬而未决的问题。

This problem has received substantial interest.

这个问题引起了极大的兴趣。

These examples highlight the problem that __

这些例子突出了__的问题。

The main practical problem that confronts us is __

我们面临的主要实际问题是__。

#### 研究现状

There is no previous research using __ approach.

之前没有使用__方法的研究。

As far as we know, no previous research has investigated __

据我们所知，以前没有研究过__。

There has been less previous evidence for __

之前关于__的证据较少。

Other studies have failed to __

其他的研究未能证实__。

To our knowledge, no study has yielded __

据我们所知，没有一项研究取得了__成果。

No study to date has examined __

到目前为止，还没有研究考察过__。

Only a few studies have shown __

只有少数研究表明__。

However, __ has rarely been studied directly.

然而，__很少被直接研究。

Moreover, few studies have focussed on __

此外，很少有研究关注__。

In particular no study, to our knowledge, has considered __

据我们所知，没有一项研究认为__。

#### 解决方法

One way to overcome these problems is to __

克服这些问题的一个方法是__。

There are many alternative methods are available for solving these problems.

有许多可供选择的方法来解决这些问题。

In order to rectify the problem of __

为了纠正__的问题。

A solution to this problem is proposed in __

解决这个问题的办法是__。

One approach to solve this problem involves the use of __

解决这个问题的方法之一是使用__。

An alternative approach to the problem is __

解决这个问题的另一种方法是__。

This can be applied to solve these problems.

这个可以用来解决这些问题。

A number of works have shown that this problem can be overcome by using __

大量研究表明，使用__可以克服这一问题。

A large number of alternative approaches have been developed over the last few decades to__

在过去的几十年里，

人们开发了大量的替代方法来支持__。

To overcome this problem, in the next section we demonstrate __

为了克服这个问题，在下一节我们将演示__。

One way to overcome this problem is to __

解决这个问题的一个办法是__。

To overcome this problem, some approaches have been made __

为了克服这个问题，已经采取了一些措施__。

One way of recovering from this problem could be to __

从这个问题中恢复的一个方法是__。

This has been proposed to surmount the problems caused by __

这是为了克服由__引起的问题。

A different approach to the traditional problem is given in __

对于传统问题，__给出了一种不同的处理方法。

A whole range of different approaches to the problem are available.

有许多不同的方法可以解决这个问题。

These techniques have potential to solve contemporary problems in __

这些技术有潜力在__中解决当代问题。

We should tailor specific solutions to specific problems __

我们应该针对具体问题__制定具体的解决方案。

The standard solution to the problem is based on __

这个问题的标准解决办法是以__为基础的。

The solution proposed here addresses only the problem of __

这里提出的解决办法只解决__的问题。

There are techniques that have been developed to solve this problem __

已经开发出一些技术来解决这个问题。

This problem is usually overcome by __

这个问题通常用__来解决。

There exist many methods for dealing with this problem __

有许多方法来处理这个问题__。

Broadly speaking, the problem can be addressed by __

广义地说，这个问题可以用__来解决。

One of the simplest ways of tackling this problem is __

解决这个问题最简单的方法之一是__。

This problem has been largely studied and many viable solutions have been found.

这个问题已经进行了大量的研究，并找到了许多可行的解决方案。

In general, this problem can be tackled in two different ways.

一般来说，这个问题可以用两种不同的方法来解决。

Other approaches have been shown to cope with the problem more efficiently.

已经证明其他方法可以更有效地处理这个问题。

We will review the main approaches to solve this problem.

我们将回顾解决这个问题的主要途径。

Recently, a more general solution has been proposed for this problem.

最近，针对这个问题提出了一个更普遍的解决方案。

Both these works provide a solution to the problem.

这两项工作都为这个问题提供了解决方案。

Recent methods focus on overcoming the problems by proposing different schemes for __

最近的方法侧重于通过提出不同的__方案来克服这些问题。

This strategy is not uncommon in this kind of problems.

这种策略在这类问题中并不少见。

We can apply our algorithm to solve this difficult problem.

我们可以用我们的算法来解决这个难题。

We have developed this generic method to solve a variety of problems.

我们开发了这种通用方法来解决各种问题。

We will now demonstrate our method on some specific problems.

现在我们将在一些具体问题上演示我们的方法。

Here we solve several problems simultaneously.

这里我们同时解决几个问题。

A possible solution to the problem at hand is __

解决当前问题的一个可能的办法是__。

It is clear that the problem could be easily tackled by __

很明显，这个问题很容易用__来解决。

#### 研究动机

It is of interest to know whether __still hold true.

知道__是否仍然正确是很重要的。

It would be of special interest to__

它对__有特殊的意义。

We therefore analyzed __ and investigated whether __

因此，我们分析了__并调查了是否__。

For this study, it was of interest to investigate __

在这项研究中，对__进行调查是有意义的。

We investigated whether __ can be partly explained by __

我们研究了是否能用__来部分解释__。

To examine the impact of __, we tested __

为了检验__的影响，我们测试了__。

We have investigated the effect of __

我们已经调查了__的影响。

We characterize different aspects of __

我们描述了__的不同方面。

One way to investigate __ was to __

调查__的一种方法是__。

A new approach is therefore needed for __

因此，__需要一种新的方法。

To illuminate this uncharted area, we examined __

为了阐明这个未知的领域，我们考察了__。

#### 研究目标

The aim is to develop more sophisticated methods for __

其目的是为__开发更复杂的方法。

The aim of this work is to develop __

这项工作的目的是开发__。

The aims in this chapter are twofold: First __, Second __

本章的目的有两个:第一阶段__，第二阶段__。

For our first goal, we focus on two problems __

对于我们的第一个目标，我们关注两个问题__。

The aim here is to investigate __

这里的目的是调查__。

The overall goal of this work was to __

这项工作的总目标是__。

This project aims to develop an overarching framework to __

该项目旨在为__开发一个总体框架。

The aim of the experiment is to compare __

实验的目的是比较__。

The ultimate goal is to produce a __

最终目标是产生__。

The overall goal of this thesis was to pursue __

本文的总体目标是追求__。

After defining the problem we explain the goals of the thesis.

在定义了问题之后，我们解释了论文的目标。

With this aim in mind, in this paper we present a new method for __

基于这一目的，我们在本文中提出了一种研究__的新方法。

Our research aims at finding a solution for this challenging problem of__

我们的研究旨在找到解决__挑战性问题的办法。

We examine some previous work and propose a new method for __

我们研究了以前的一些工作，并提出了一种解决__的新方法。

There are too many simultaneous goals making it difficult to __

同时有太多的目标，很难达成__。

One of the major aims of this work was to create __

这项工作的主要目的之一是建立__。

The main objective is to investigate methods for improving __

主要目的是研究改进__的方法。

The objective is to devise and implement a system for __

目标是为__制定和实施一项制度。

The objectives were partially met by developing a method to __

通过开发一种方法来达到目标的一部分。

The objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of __

目的是论证__的可行性。

One of the objectives is to improve the __

其中一个目标是改进__。

#### 研究的意义和优势

This thesis documents several key contributions made to the fields of __

这篇论文记录了对__领域的几项重要贡献。

This thesis has made a number of significant contributions to the field of __

这篇论文对__领域做出了许多重大贡献。

The contributions made here have wide applicability.

这里所作的贡献具有广泛的适用性。

The contributions made should be of wide interest.

所作的贡献应该引起广泛的兴趣。

The first main contribution proposed in this field is a __

在这一领域提出的第一个主要贡献是__。

The contributions of this work are presented as follows: __

本工作的贡献如下__。

The main achievements, including contributions to the field can be summarized as follows: __

主要成就包括对该领域的贡献可以总结如下:__

We summarize the main contributions of this thesis.

总结了本文的主要贡献。

The key contribution of this work is the solution it provides __

这项工作的关键贡献在于它提供了__的解决方案。

It has numerous advantages as explained here __

正如这里所解释的，它有许多优点__。

It has significant benefits in terms of __

它在__方面有显著的好处。

There is a clear advantage in following the methods of __

采用__方式有明显的好处。

This has particular advantages over other __

这比其他__有特殊的优点。

All of these advantages make it particularly valuable in __

所有这些优势使得它在__特别有价值。

One of the primary benefits of this algorithm is __

这个算法的主要优点之一是__。

This gives a significant advantage because __

这带来了一个显著的优势，因为__。

These point out the advantages and practicability of __

指出了__的优点和实用性。

One of the key benefits of the algorithm is __

该算法的主要优点之一是__。

The main advantage compared to previous method is __

与以前的方法相比，主要优点是__。

This present some practical advantages.

这提出了一些实际的优点。

The main advantage is the simplified pattern.

其主要优点是简化了模式。

One practical advantage of the method is that it can be used in __

这种方法的一个实际优点是它可以用在__。

The advantage becomes all the more significant when __

当__时，优势变得更加明显。

In comparison with other techniques, this method has the advantage of __

与其它方法相比，该方法的优点是__。

The most important advantage of this method is that it can perform very well in __

这种方法最重要的优点是它能在__中很好地发挥作用。

It yielded significant speed advantages when __

当__时，它产生了显著的速度优势。

The benefit of using the __ is expected to __

使用__的好处预计为__。

The main advantage is that we are able to __

主要的优点是我们能够__。

To give some idea of the benefits of this method __

为了说明这种方法的好处__。

The additional advantage of using this method is that it results in __

使用这种方法的另一个好处是它能产生__。

This is an important advantage of this algorithm __

这是该算法的一个重要优点__。

These are the main advantages of this method.

这些是这种方法的主要优点。

## 摘要写作例子

Edge computing is a new architecture to provide computing, storage, and networking resources for achieving the Internet of Things. It brings computation to the network edge close to users.

1-2 句话，概念和背景介绍。

However, nodes in the edge have limited energy and resources. Completely running tasks in the edge may cause poor performance. Cloud data centers (CDCs) have rich resources for executing tasks, but they are located in places far away from users. CDCs lead to long transmission delays and large financial costs for utilizing resources.

1-2 句话，指出存在的问题。

Therefore, it is essential to smartly offload users’ tasks between a CDC layer and an edge computing layer.

1 句话，指出有必要进行 XX 研究。

This work proposes a cloud and edge computing system, which has a terminal layer, edge computing layer, and CDC layer.

1 句话，指出设计了 XX 架构。

In each time slot, this work jointly considers CPU, memory, and bandwidth resources, the load balance of all heterogeneous nodes in the edge layer, the maximum amount of energy, the maximum number of servers, and task queue stability in the CDC layer. Considering the abovementioned factors, a single-objective constrained optimization problem is formulated.

1-2 句话，建立了 XX 优化问题。（预测类论文不需要问题建模）

To solve this problem, this work proposes a simulated-annealing-based migrating birds optimization procedure to obtain a close-to-optimal solution.

1-2 句话，设计了 XX 算法，该算法具有 XX 等关键组件，具有 XX 优点。

Based on it, this work designs a profit-maximized collaborative computation offloading and resource allocation algorithm to maximize the profit of systems and guarantee that response time limits of tasks are strictly met.

1 句话，根据该算法，实现了 XX 目标。

Realistic data-based simulation results demonstrate that it realizes higher profit than its state-of-the- art peers by XX%, XX%, and XX%.

1 句话，实验结果如何(添加具体的百分比)。

## 结论写作例子

It is important to maximize the profit of distributed cloud and edge computing systems by optimally scheduling all tasks between them given user-specific response time limits of tasks.

1 句话，这个问题很重要

It is challenging to execute them in nodes in the edge computing layer because their computation resources and battery capacities are often constrained and heterogeneous.

1 句话，这个问题很难

Current offloading methods fail to jointly optimize computation offloading and resource allocation for nodes in the edge and servers in CDC. They are insufficient and coarse-grained to schedule arriving tasks.

1 句话，现在的相关方法，存在 XX 问题。

In this work, a problem is formulated and solved with a simulated-annealing-based biobjective differential evolution (SBDE) algorithm to obtain an approximate Pareto-optimal set.

1-2 句话，设计了 XX 算法，该算法具有 XX 等关键组件，具有 XX 优点。

It explicitly specifies the task service rate and the selected node for each task in each time slot by considering resource limits, load balance requirement, processing capacities of nodes in the edge, and server and energy constraints in CDC. This work considers the joint optimization of computation offloading between Cloud data center (CDC) and edge computing layers, and resource allocation in CDC.

1-2 句话，该算法具体优化的变量是 XX，实现的目标是 XX。

Real-life data-driven simulations show that the proposed method realizes a larger profit than several typical offloading strategies. It can be readily implemented and incorporated into large-scale industrial computing systems.

1 句话，实验结果如何(添加具体的百分比)。